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Title: Life Cycle Assessment of Dry Sewage Sludge Handling Methods for the State of Kuwait
Authors: Yasmeen Moeen Almuzaini 
Supervisor: Dr. Abdalrahman Alsulaili
Degree Awarded: Master’s Degree in Environmental Sciences
Keywords: Sludge, LCA, Kuwait, Landfill, Incineration, Land application
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher:  Kuwait university - college of graduate studies
Abstract: The study conducts life cycle assessment (LCA) for dominant dry sewage sludge handling methods for the State of Kuwait and can be a useful tool for the Sanitary Department - Ministry of Public Works to deal with the accumulated dry sewage sludge in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In the current situation, large quantities of dry sewage sludge within the WWTPs are accumulating in daily basis without being utilized, causing odors and degrading surrounding land use. Dry sewage sludge can be landfilled, incinerated or used as a fertilizer in agricultural land. In order to find the best solution from the three alternatives, LCA was conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts of the three alternative scenarios (landfill, land application and incineration) of dry sewage sludge for the State of Kuwait. The results showed that land application is overall the most preferable sludge handling option and has the lowest environmental impact for all indicators. Land application approach has the less emissions, energy, and material and land consumption. Both landfill and incineration scenarios have the indirect impact of purchasing more fertilizer. Landfill scenario has the worst impact on most indicators. Global warming, fine particulate matter, and human non-carcinogenic toxicity are the main environmental issues for all the scenarios. The key greenhouse gases are N2O and CO2, which originate from sewage sludge and are produced in the processes of sludge treatment. For the landfill scenario, CO2 and CH4 emitted from the landfill sites are the main sources of emissions to air which contribute to global warming. Incineration and landfill scenarios have the same SO2, particulates < 2.5m, nitrogen oxides and ammonia particulates that are released during the processes of incineration and landfilling. The least number of particulates that contribute to particulate matter formation are released during the land application of dry sewage sludge. Human non-carcinogenic toxicity indicators are also affected by toxic pollutants and substances released from the incineration process, heavy metals and their accumulation on soil and the landfill gas generated during the landfill process. Heavy metals released from the incineration process are major contributors to human toxicity and ecotoxicity.
Appears in Programs:2040 Environmental Sciences

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