Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/439
Title: Development of a Functional Food from Amla Fruit (Phyllanthus emblica L.)
Authors: Humaira Sarfraz 
Supervisor: Prof. Jiwan S. Sidhu
Keywords: American Association of Cereal Chemists : Freeze-dried
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher:  Kuwait university - college of graduate studies
Abstract: Sufficient quantities of fresh amla fruits (Phyllanthus emblica L.) were procured from the local market, washed thoroughly in cold running water to remove any adhering dirt and other impurities etc. These samples were divided in three equal amounts, seeds were removed manually, and then chopped in an electric chopper (Phillips Viva, Turkey). Fresh amla pulp was analyzed for moisture and ascorbic acid as per AOAC methods (2012). The amla pulp was sun-dried (SD), oven-dried (OD) and freeze-dried (FD), finely ground and stored in air-tight glass containers at 4oC till further use. The amla powders were analyzed for ascorbic acid, sugars, pectin, total phenolics (TPC), and total antioxidant activities (TEAC). Fresh amla was found to have 6644.305mg/100g ascorbic acid with sun-dried, oven-dried and freeze-dried having 748.427mg/100g, 641.364mg/100g, 791.233mg/100g, respectively, whereas there were no significant differences for the TPC and TEAC values between the powders (presented as dry-basis). FD had the highest total sugars. The effect of adding amla powders on the mixogram characteristics were studied using AACC method (2000). The amla powder on the bread-making characteristics was examined. The baked pan bread was evaluated for physical texture (30% compression) using TAXT2 texture analyzer and for objective color as CIE L*a*b* values using Hunter Lab Mini Scan XE Plus color checker (USA). The baked bread samples were also evaluated for sensory quality using 9-point hedonic scale. The L*, a*, b* values were not significantly (p < 0.05) different for the crusts of all types of the breads in all supplementation levels. However, incorporation of SD, OD and FD powder lowered L*and b* values significantly for the crumb color. The redness values (a*) were found to increase significantly (p > 0.05) with increasing supplementation levels and increase was found to be more in OD samples followed by SD and then FD. The FD supplemented WB were found to be softer in texture (lower hardness values) than WB supplemented with SD and OD. The supplemented breads were well-accepted by the consumers. It can be concluded that amla supplemented pan bread with its superior nutritional and sensory qualities can be produced commercially to improve consumer nutrition.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/439
Appears in Programs:1820 Nutrition Science & Food Science

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