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Title: Hormonal Influences on Cytokine Production Patterns in Unexplained Recurrent Spontaneous Miscarriage
Authors: Ghadeer Jasiem Abdul Hussain 
Supervisor: Prof. Raj Raghupathy
Keywords: Unexplained
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher:  Kuwait university - college of graduate studies
Abstract: Maternal-fetal immunological interactions in general and the cytokine milieu in particular have been deemed critical for successful pregnancy to ensure feto-maternal tolerance. Evidence support the notion that maternal anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines promote successful pregnancy and that pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines are associated with pregnancy loss. With newly identified cytokines, the initial Th1/Th2 hypothesis has been expanded to Th1/Th2/Th17. Studies have reported higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in women undergoing unexplained recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (uRSM) than in women undergoing healthy pregnancy. The possible nexus between uRSM and maternal inflammatory bias have opened up the possibility of using hormones such as progesterone and dydrogesterone, to alter the maternal cytokine bias in a manner that is conducive to successful pregnancy. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the ability of progesterone, dydrogesterone and estrogen to modulate cytokine production by peripheral blood lymphocytes from women undergoing uRSM. Our study provides new findings that in addition to Th1 immunity, mitogen-activated maternal PBMC of women with uRSM produce elevated levels of Th17 cytokines, indicating that elevated Th17 immunity is also involved in the pathogenesis of uRSM. Additionally, the present data indicate that progesterone, dydrogesterone, and estrogen are important regulators of Th1/Th2/Th17 immunity capable of modulating pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokine production in uRSM creating a milieu that is conducive to the success of pregnancy. The results are expected to shed light on the roles of cytokine networks in the fetal-maternal relationship and on immunomodulation using pregnancy-related hormones that may provide viable treatment options for patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriage.
Appears in Programs:0520 Microbiology (M.Sc.)

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