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Title: Assessing the Impact of Adopting Electrically Powered Vehicles on Kuwait’s Air Quality
Authors: Ahmed Z. Aly 
Supervisor: Dr. Fahad M. Al-Fadhli
Keywords: Powered Vehicles : kuwait
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher:  Kuwait university - college of graduate studies
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the environmental impacts that could arise due to the adoption of a greener policy towards curbing vehicular emissions, through the adoption plug in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) into Kuwait’s vehicular fleet. By abandoning fossil fuel based gasoline combustion for power productions, PHEV promise a great deal of reduction to vehicular emissions. Various PHEV adoption rates % were investigated and then compared with the emissions produced from a base case scenario based on 2014 data for power production in Kuwait. Specifically, from the 13th of November to the 19th of November of 2014, covering one week worth of data to study the daily trends in various parameters. Traffic data was obtained for the same week in 2017 and appropriately adjusted to reflect population increase during the same period. PHEV will not only contribute to a better state of air quality but could also help smoothen the electricity load daily cycle, since most of the PHEV owners will be charging overnight to start their next day fully recharged. Google Maps Directions API was used to periodically get the one hour averaged speed across major roads in Kuwait for the period of the study. The daily average number of vehicles stood at around 704,00 vehicles. The associated trends were consistent with known working hours of the public and private sectors. Similarly, electricity generation rates in the weekend generally saw lower production rates compared to weekdays. In addition, steam turbines accounted for as much as two thirds of electricity generation. Sabiya power plant contributed the most to the NOx emissions even though Az-Zour South power plant is the largest in terms of actual capacity. The mean NOx concentration over the study period stood at around 18.79 μg/m3 (lower than local and international standards). However, several hotspots were identified with significantly high concentrations in the vicinity of several residential areas, namely, Al-Yarmouk, Al-Rai, and Shuwaikh, Keifan, Da’iya, Dasman, and Bneid Al-Gar. Subject to the proposed charging scenario, different PHEVs penetration rates were then studied to uncover their impact on Kuwait’s air quality. Accordingly, at its current state, Kuwait’s power production infrastructure was able to accommodate the electrification of Kuwait’s entire vehicular fleet. The charging scenario contributed to lowering the difference between the peak and low rates of electricity generation by as much as 8.3% and 6.2% during weekdays and weekends respectively for the 100% penetration rate. Moreover, predicted NOx concentrations were reduced by as much 14% for the 100% PHEVs penetration rate compared to the base case. PHEVs primarily contributed to shifting the NOx hotspots observed in the base case to areas that could be considered safer in terms of being mostly uninhabited areas. Specifically, beyond the 50% PHEVs penetration rate, the maximum concentration no longer occurred in close proximity to residential areas as was previously observed.
Appears in Programs:0640 Chemical Engineering

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